Sample Illustrations and Descriptions From
Mushrooms of Northeastern North America
(1997, Syracuse University Press)
Order your autographed copy now!
Boletus frostii Russell
Photo courtesy William Roody
COMMON NAME: Frost’s Bolete, Apple Bolete.
CAP: 2–6" (5–15.5 cm) wide, hemispheric to convex, becoming broadly convex to flat; surface with a whitish bloom when young, quickly becoming smooth and sticky when moist, initially dark blackish red to bright red, fading with age to blood-red with yellowish areas; margin incurved when young, becoming upturned in age; flesh pale to lemon-yellow, rapidly staining blue when cut or bruised; odor and taste not distinctive.
PORE SURFACE: dark red when fresh, paler in age, often beaded with yellow droplets when young and moist, quickly blueing when bruised; pores circular, 2–3 per mm.
STALK: 1-5/8–4-3/4" (4–12 cm) long, 3/8–1" (1–2.5 cm) thick, nearly equal to enlarging downward, solid, deeply and coarsely reticulate, dark red, often yellow or whitish at the base, slowly staining blue when cut or bruised; partial veil and ring absent.
SPORE PRINT: olive-brown.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 11–17 x 4–5 µm, elliptic, smooth, pale brown.
FRUITING: scattered or in groups on the ground under hardwoods, especially oak; July–October; occasional to fairly common.
Coprinus comatus (Müller : Fries) S.F. Gray
COMMON NAME: Shaggy Mane, Lawyer's Wig
CAP: 1-1/8–2" (3–5 cm) wide and oval to cylindric at first, becoming broadly conic to nearly plane and 2–3-1/8" (5–8 cm) wide in age, fragile; surface dry, white with a brownish disc, coated with coarse scales that are white to pale reddish brown and usually darkest at the tips; flesh white at first, becoming black as the mushroom deliquesces in age; odor and taste not distinctive.
GILLS: attached at first then free from the stalk, crowded, white then pink, and finally black as the mushroom deliquesces.
STALK: 3–12" (7.5–30 cm) long, 3/8–1" (1–2.5 cm) thick, enlarged downward to a bulbous base, sometimes rooting, hollow, glabrous to silky-fibrillose, white, fragile; partial veil white, submembranous, leaving a thin, inferior ring.
SPORE PRINT: black.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 10–14 x 6–8.5 µm, ellipsoid, truncate, with an apical pore, smooth, purple-brown.
FRUITING: scattered, in groups or clusters in grassy areas, on soil, or in wood chips; May–November; common.
COMMENTS: Coprinus sterquilinus is a smaller, white to whitish mushroom that grows on dung or on manured soil, and has much larger spores that measure 16–22 x 10–13 µm.
Cantharellus cibarius Fries
COMMON NAME: Chanterelle, Golden Chanterelle.
CAP: 5/8–5½" (1.6–14 cm) wide, convex to nearly plane, sometimes with a depressed center; surface dry, nearly smooth, orange-yellow to yellow; margin thin, incurved to inrolled when young, often remaining so for a long time, becoming uplifted and wavy in age, sometimes crimped or lobed.
FLESH: thick, firm, white; odor fragrant like apricots or not distinctive; taste peppery or not distinctive.
FERTILE SURFACE: decurrent, with forked, blunt, gill-like ridges, with or without crossveins, pale yellow to yellow or pale orange.
STALK: 5/8–2-3/4" (1.6–7 cm) long, up to 1" (2.5 cm) thick, equal or enlarged at either end, smooth, pale yellow to orange-yellow.
SPORE PRINT: pinkish cream to pale buff.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 8–11 x 4.5–6 µm, elliptic, smooth, hyaline.
FRUITING: solitary, scattered, in groups or sometimes clustered on the ground in woods; July–September; fairly common.
EDIBILITY: edible, choice.
COMMENTS: compare with the Jack O’Lantern, Omphalotus olearius(poisonous), which has true gills with sharp edges and grows on wood or buried wood, typically in large overlapping clusters.
Clavulinopsis fusiformis (Fries) Corner
COMMON NAME: Spindle-shaped Yellow Coral.
FRUITING BODY: up to 5½" (14 cm) high, 1/16–3/8" (1.5–10 mm) thick, cylindric to worm-like or somewhat flattened, usually unbranched but sometimes branching near the apex; apex pointed to rounded; surface typically smooth, but sometimes wrinkled or grooved, bright to dull yellow; flesh thin, brittle to fibrous, yellowish.
SPORE PRINT: white to pale yellow.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: 5–9 x 4–9 µm, broadly oval to globose, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid.
FRUITING: in dense clusters on soil or among grasses in woods and pastures; July–October; fairly common.
Phlogiotis helvelloides (Fries) Martin
COMMON NAME: Apricot Jelly.
FRUITING BODY: 3/4–2-3/4" (2–7 cm) wide, 1–3-1/8" (2.5–8 cm) high, funnel-shaped with a split side or spoon-shaped to tongue-shaped with a wavy margin, rubbery-gelatinous, nearly smooth; pinkish red to apricot, often paler on the margin in age.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 10–12 x 4–7 µm, elliptic, smooth, hyaline.
FRUITING: solitary or in groups on the ground or decaying wood in coniferous and mixed woods; May–October; infrequent.
EDIBILITY: edible but rather bland.
COMMENTS: Also knows as Tremiscus helvelloides.
Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Fries) Karsten
COMMON NAME: Yellow-red Gill Polypore.
CAP: 1–4" (2.5–10 cm) wide, semicircular to kidney-shaped, flat or slightly convex, stalkless, fibrous-tough; surface covered with short stiff hairs, becoming matted and felty or nearly smooth in age, with distinct concentric zones and furrows, bright yellowish red to reddish brown; margin whitish to orange-yellow or brownish yellow, uneven, with tufts of tiny hairs.
FLESH: up to ¼" (6 mm) thick, fibrous-tough, yellow-brown to rusty brown, black in KOH.
PORE SURFACE: golden brown to rusty brown, gill-like to labyrinthine (often both), and sometimes with elongated pores; pores 1–2 per mm.
SPORE PRINT: white.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 9–13 x 3–5 µm, cylindric, smooth, hyaline.
FRUITING: solitary, in groups, or rosette-like clusters on decaying wood, usually conifer; year-round; common.
COMMENTS: Lenzites betulina (inedible) has white flesh and usually grows on decaying hardwood. Gloeophyllum trabeum (inedible) has crowded gills and narrow pores, up to 4 per mm along the margin.
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bulliard : Fries) Murrill
COMMON NAME: Chicken Mushroom, Sulphur Shelf.
FRUITING BODY: a large, overlapping cluster of flattened, laterally fused, and lobed caps, sometimes forming rosettes or a solitary cap, stalkless or with a rudimentary stalk.
CAP: 2–12" (5–31 cm) wide, fan- to petal-shaped, soft, fleshy when young, fibrous-tough in age; surface velvety to densely matted and woolly, dry, radially wrinkled and roughened, bright to dull orange, fading to orange-yellow, then whitish in age; margin pale orange, blunt, wavy, often lobed.
FLESH: up to 3/4" (2 cm) thick, fleshy-fibrous, white; odor nutty or not distinctive; taste not distinctive.
PORE SURFACE: bright sulphur-yellow; pores angular, 3–4 per mm.
SPORE PRINT: white.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 5–8 x 3.5–5 µm, oval to elliptic, smooth, hyaline.
FRUITING: solitary, overlapping clusters, or rosettes on hardwoods, especially oak and cherry, occasionally on conifers, especially hemlock; May–November; fairly common.
EDIBILITY: edible and choice when collected on hardwoods; may cause gasterointestinal upset when gathered from conifer wood.
COMMENTS: the flesh of this mushroom has the consistency and flavor of white chicken meat. Compare with L. persicinus (edible, choice), which has a pinkish orange cap, a white pore surface and forms rosettes.
Cyathus striatus Hudson : Persoon
COMMON NAME: Splash Cups.
CUP: inverted-conic, ¼–5/16" (6–8 mm) wide, ¼–3/8" (6–10 mm) high; when immature the cup is protected by a white, membrane-like lid and the upper edge of the cap is rolled inward; interior gray to grayish white, shiny, smooth, vertically lined; exterior reddish brown to chocolate-brown or grayish brown, shaggy-hairy to woolly, sometimes faintly to distinctly fluted.
PERIDIOLES: gray, flattened, 1/16–1/8" (1.5–3 mm) in diameter, often vaguely triangular, each attached beneath by a tiny, coiled cord.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES: spores 15–20 x 8–12 µm, elliptic, smooth, hyaline.
FRUITING: scattered to gregariously grouped on wood chips, twigs, bark, etc.; July–October; frequent to common.
Copyright © 1997 by Alan E. Bessette, Arleen R. Bessette, and David W. Fischer. All Rights Reserved.
AMERICANMUSHROOMS.COM SITE INDEX
about • mushroom basics • coolest mushrooms • edible mushrooms •
1,046 mushroom photos! • HOME • lawn & garden mushrooms • mushroom links • medicinal mushrooms
morel mushrooms • mushroom I.D. • mushroom photography • mushroom show • music • mushroom odors • psilocybin mushrooms • schedule • store • tiniest mushrooms • toxic mushrooms
To contact David Fischer, send an e-mail to…
All content at americanmushrooms.com is Copyright © 2006, 2007 by David W. Fischer. All rights reserved.